In Oaklawn Jockety Club, Inc. v. Kentucky_Downs, LLC, [16-5582] (Sixth Circuit April 19, 2017), the Sixth Circuit affirmed a district court dismissal of plaintiff’s trademark infringement action because defendant’s use of plaintiffs’ trademarks in its electronic horse racing games was not likely to cause confusion. Although the case was designated “NOT RECOMMENDED FOR PUBLICATION,” it makes an important point about trademark infringement: defendant must use plaintiff’s trademark as a trademark.
The district court found, and the Sixth Circuit agreed, that defendant’s marks in its animated video recreations of actual historic horse races, in order to identify the location of the race, was not a trademark use.
The Sixth Circuit noted that the term “Location” preceding the trademarks sufficiently explains to consumers that the trademarks are being used in a wholly descriptive
manner and does not cause a likelihood of confusion as to the source of the video. The Sixth Circuit added that the fact that the replay is entirely generic and does not visually depict the plaintiffs’ facilities further supports this conclusion.
Because this was a non-trademark use of plaintiffs’ trademarks, the Sixth Circuit did not have to reach the question whether the fair-use defense applied. As the Supreme Court said in Prestonettes, Inc. v. Coty, 264 U.S. 359, 368 (1924). “When the mark is used in a way that does not deceive the public we see no such sanctity in the word as to prevent its being used to tell the truth.”
A interesting battle has “popped” up between Amplify Snack Brands, Inc., owner of the SKINNYPOP trademark, and Snyders-Lance, which is preparing to enter the market with METCALFE’S SKINNY POPCORN. Amplify sued Snyders-Lance in federal court in Texas on April 11. Amplify accused Snyders-Lance of willful infringement in an obvious attempt to confuse customers. Meanwhile, Snyders-Lance sued Amplify the same day in North Carolina for a declaration that it is not infringing Amplify’s rights.
Popcorn appears to part of a larger plan by Kettle Foods Ltd. to introduce a whole line fo METCALFE SKINNY products including fruit-based snack food; nut-based snack food; fruit chips, low-fat potato chips, nuts, potato chips, bread, pastry and confectionery made of sugar, cereal bars; cereal-based snack food; corn-based snack food; crackers; rice-based snack food; rice cakes U.S. Application Nos. 87160093, 87160099, 87160107, 87160109, 87160114, 87160123).
Whether SKINNY is capable of identifying source is an open question. There 116 issued registrations and 69 pending applications on marks including the term “SKINNY” for food products. Only 9 of the registrations disclaim of “skinny,” and only 10 of the applications (including all of Kettle Foods Ltd.’s applications) disclaim “skinny.” Lance also points out that there is at least one other SKINNY popcorn already in the market: SKINNYGIRL:
If not descriptive of food, SKINNY is certainly widely used, so whether Amplify’s can show METCALFE’S SKINNY POPCORN infringes SKINNYPOP POPCORN will be interesting. Kettle Foods Ltd. will likely contend, consistent with its disclaimer of “skinny” that its use of skinny is a permitted descriptive use under 15 USC §1115(b)(4). Amplify reportedly has $200 million in popcorn sales, so this could be a epic battle. Get a bowl of your favorite popcorn, and pull up a chair.
The prevailing defendant in Louis Vuitton v, My Other Bag, LLC (blogged about here: Louis Vuitton Left Holding the Bag) in a Motion filed on April 7 in the Southern District of New York (Case 1:14-cv-03419-JMF Document 154) is seeking $802,939.05 in fees and costs for defending Louis Vuitton’s claim that MOB’s parody bag infringed or diluted Louis Vuitton’s rights:
MOB argues that a fee award is justified because Louis Vuitton is a trademark bully. “Trademark bully” is a term that is being used with increasing frequency. See Three Stripes and You’re Out. MOB used the term “bully” at least 13 times in its motion for fees.
Trademark Owners are put in a difficult position. The failure to aggressively enforce their rights, can allow third party uses that either weaken the mark in a likelihood of confusion analysis, or lessen its fame and distinctiveness in a dilution analysis. A trademark owner may (rightly) feel forced to take actions that it might otherwise be inclined to tolerate. And outside of the costs of enforcement, there has been little consequence to bringing such a claim.
An award of attorneys fees and costs in appropriate cases, may be exactly what is needed to tip the scales when enforcement decisions are being made. It is up to the Southern District of New York to judge the propriety of Louis Vuitton’s enforcement efforts, and decide whether or not the name “bully” is appropriate.